Homosexuality in ancient Rome often differs markedly from the contemporary West. Latin lacks words that would precisely translate " homosexual " and " heterosexual ". Roman society was patriarchal , and the freeborn male citizen possessed political liberty libertas and the right to rule both himself and his household familia. The conquest mentality and "cult of virility" shaped same-sex relations. Roman men were free to enjoy sex with other males without a perceived loss of masculinity or social status, as long as they took the dominant or penetrative role. Acceptable male partners were slaves and former slaves, prostitutes , and entertainers, whose lifestyle placed them in the nebulous social realm of infamia , excluded from the normal protections accorded a citizen even if they were technically free.
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Sodomy is a crime in the country, with laws strictly enforced, and social attitudes towards the LGBT community are shaped by Islam , the official state religion of Malaysia. Breaking the law is punishable by up to 20 years in prison and authorities will also bring the person to corporal punishment. In February , a court declared that any state laws within Malaysia can not be in conflict or override with clear federal law on banning gay sex. Malaysia retains its colonial era criminal ban on sodomy as well as oral sex , broadly defined to include both heterosexual and homosexual acts, with possible punishment including fines, prison sentences of up to twenty years, and even caning. A subsection of the Criminal Code also provides additional punishment for men convicted of "gross indecency with another male person". There has been some public discussion about reforming the law so as to exempt private, non-commercial sexual acts between consenting adults.
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Lawyers defending a Hong Kong couple accused of murdering their five-year-old daughter have argued her death was the result of excessive corporal punishment and gross negligence, as prosecutors maintained the case was too serious for manslaughter. The High Court on Wednesday heard closing arguments in the trial of the girl's year-old father and year-old stepmother, after she died of septicaemia on January 6, The couple have admitted to child cruelty inflicted upon the girl and her eight-year-old brother over days from August 10, , but denied murdering her.
The Penal Code prohibits "carnal knowledge against the order of nature", attempts to commit "carnal knowledge against the order of nature", and acts of "gross indecency". However, in November , President Joyce Banda suspended all laws that criminalized homosexuality. In July , the Justice Minister announced that Malawi would no longer arrest people for same-sex sexual activity and review its anti-gay laws. In late December , a trans woman , Tiwonge Chimbalanga, and a man, Steven Monjeza, were arrested after holding a traditional "engagement" party.